Saturday, May 23, 2020

Political Cartoons By Benjamin Franklin - 821 Words

Political cartoons are an illustrative technique that political cartoonist use to display a message to the viewers about government, world affairs, and politics. In 1754, publishers of the Pennsylvania Gazette published the first political cartoon illustrated by Benjamin Franklin (West, par. 1). Benjamin Franklin used his first political cartoon, titled Join or Die, to gain support from the colonies for the Crown’s war against the French (West, par. 1). Since the 1700s, illustrators use political cartoons as a medium to display political messages to its viewers (West, par. 1). On March 10, 2015, publishers of the Columbia Daily Tribune published a political cartoon, illustrated by John Darkow, titled Hillary Has A Primary Opponent (Darkow,†¦show more content†¦1). Darkow uses this luggage item to represent one of Hillary Clinton’s character traits. The second luggage item labeled â€Å"emails†, located on the right side of the podium, represents Hillary Clinton’s email conspiracy in 2009. Towards the beginning of Hillary Clinton’s career as Secretary of State, the government suspected Hillary Clinton of using her personal computer server to complete government work, ultimately violating the Federal Records Act (Graff, par. 6). After suspicions arose, the government suspected Hillary Clinton of sending and receiving classified information via her personal computer server. During interviews and press meetings, Clinton denied this accusation multiple times. After further investigation of the matter, the government detected over 193 classified emails on her personal computer server, ultimately representing Clinton’s dishonesty and her violation of the Federal Records Act (Graff, par. 88). The third piece of luggage labeled â€Å"Foreign Money to Clinton Foundation† represents the foreign donation controversy that arose over the last few years regarding the Clinton Foundation. The countries of Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Oman, Brunei, and Algeria donated millions of dollars directly to the Clinton Foundation, which is prohibited (Chozick Eder, par. 6). American political foundations are prohibited to receive financial donations from foreign nationals, which left theShow MoreRelatedPolitical Cartoons By Benjamin Franklin3806 Words   |  16 PagesPolitical cartoons are written for sarcastic and satirical purposes; however, most political cartoons actually represent the real thoughts of people and society on a certain issue. A cartoon can represent ideas about a public figure such as a president, a traitor, or a war hero. It can also represent an idea such as slavery or taxation. Political cartoons can represent different movements and acts as well such as the Emancipation Proclamation and the Stamp Act. While sometimes hurtful to the ideaRead MorePolitical And Political Politics Of The Twentieth Century1546 Words   |  7 Pages What is the history of political cartooning? The history of political cartooning is used for social and political messages which goes back to the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in America with Benjamin Franklin’s â€Å"Join or Die†, which depicts a snake whose severed parts represent the colonies and unless put together are sure to perish. Since Benjamin Franklin started political cartooning back in the eighteenth century, people have started using their artistic skills to attack, argue andRead MoreEnglish Colonial Unity During The 18th And Early 18th Centuries898 Words   |  4 Pagesother to create laws. Contrary to the Mayflower Compact, Benjamin Franklin, a Pennsylvania delegate who also strongly supported colonial unity, took a very different approach to the dilemma. He suggested a solution in his 1754 letter, â€Å"The Problem of Colonial Union,† addressed to the Massachusetts governor, William Shirley. Since the French and Indian War had just begun and the British crown was desperate to bring the colonies together, Franklin wrote that the only way they could establish a union wouldRead MorePolitical Cartoons937 Words   |  4 PagesPolitical Cartoons Shawn Palmer University of Phoenix Political cartoons have been with us from the 16th century to today, changing social agendas and shaping public opinion about political office holders. The creator of each cartoon makes each one represent his or hers opinion about what would be currently happening at that time. This paper will show you the start of political cartoons and the role played by political cartoons in setting social agendas also it will show how they are used todayRead MoreBenjamin Franklin : The Declaration Of Independence And The Constitution Of The United States764 Words   |  4 PagesBenjamin Franklin (born January 17th) was one of the founding fathers who drafted the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States. He was a man of many talents and accomplished many great feats during his lifetime. Being born on January 17th makes him fall under the influence of Saturn, Capricorn and number 8. He was very hardworking, ambitious and enterprising. Starting from 12 years old he help ed his brother compose pamphlets and he would personally sell those on the streetRead MoreHow Did Benjamin Franklin Affect American Society?1866 Words   |  8 Pages How Did Benjamin Franklin Affect American Society? Many individuals have had the opportunity to lead, to innovate, and to direct this country. Through different roles, similar or dissimilar, individuals have impacted different aspects of our society. A hundred dollar man, by the name of Benjamin Franklin, had this initiative and drive held by other great leaders of this country. Benjamin Franklin many times has impacted America and its society more than mostRead MoreCatalysts for American Revolution1404 Words   |  6 PagesNick Cuccaro U.S History 1 Liberty! The American Revolution – Quiz October 9th, 2012 The American Revolution, also known as the Revolutionary War, was a war that had raged on for eight years stemming from major political differences of opinion. Though, the fighting and the discontent between the two opposing forces, Americans and British, had been developing for years before the first shots ever had gone off to start the revolution. The reasoning for the tension between the two is tracedRead MorePresident Executive Of The United States Of America Essay1565 Words   |  7 Pagesstating he was a mean, lowlife who was the son of an American Indian. (History) Soon later, political cartoons were used to endorse campaigning slurs. Each presidential party would have drawings of their opponents with exaggerated features to expose their flaws as president. A well-known political cartoon that Benjamin Franklin drew of a snake with â€Å"Join or die† quoted at the bottom became a very well-known cartoon for America, which was published by The Gazette in 1754. This slogan was very influentialRead MoreEssay on Development of the American Identity Between 1750 and 1776919 Words   |  4 PagesAmerican colonists (from the British), Benjamin Franklin proposed the Albany Plan of Union in order to secure the Iroquois loyalty and raise inter-colonial unity/agreement. Through political cartoon such as the famous Join, or Die fragmented snake, Ben Franklin hinted at the fact that, against a common enemy (in this case, the French and Huron Indian tribes), unity was of necessity in order to strengthen America as a whole (Doc. A). Furthermore, Ben Fr anklin expressed his opinion or unity at theRead MoreThe French And Indian War963 Words   |  4 Pagessalutary neglect saw increased cohesion among the various colonies as they banded together to resist British restrictions on rights. However, various factions within colonial society hindered a unified movement. While the colonists develop limited political, social, and economic unity based upon the rhetoric of revolution, on the eve of the American Revolution, significant barriers to complete colonial unity existed. In response to the common British oppression, a system of intercolonial committees

Monday, May 11, 2020

The way masculinity and gender influence in institutions

Research Question: According to the Danish Ministry of Equality, 7% of all educated pedagogues employed in communal Danish day-care institutions are men. (Bà ¸rnehaver mangler mandlige pà ¦dagoger 2013) The contemporary awareness in society and even governmental activism to increase employment of male child-care workers made them an interesting target of research. With every third student at the Pedagogue-seminars being male, but so few choosing the field of child-care (Stobbe 2013), we wanted to research in which way this influences masculinity and gender-roles in institutions. Why didnt more educated male pedagogues want to pursue a career within the field of child care/education? †In the institution where I was formerly†¦show more content†¦85 %, our presence would cause confusion and instability. The challenges related to multi-ethnicity, language - and culture barriers, were almost always acknowledged and told by our informants as part of the everyday-pedagogical framework. Most of our informants had chosen this particular institution because of the scene and the location and represented a crucial way of identifying themselves through their political ideology (Interview with Dean and Ryan). All in all everyones professionalism was reflected through this particular setting of multi-ethnicity. On the very first day we were allowed to observe inside, and were only denied access to one of the four rooms. We tried negotiating this with one of the attached child-care workers, so that wed only visit when fewer children were present, but time flew and we ended up spending little time there. During our research we usually arrived at 10 am, spent an hour in one of the rooms, and then went to the staff-room to jot field-notes or to engage in informal conversations with the staff on break. We then joined the staff and children on the playground to observe and speak to available personnel. Even though they at times were extremely busy, we managed to gain good ethnographic material. A couple of weeks into fieldwork we started reflecting upon what we saw every day in the institution. There were certain situations where we repeatedly discovered general patterns and wanted to hear our informantsShow MoreRelatedGender As A Primary Cultural Frame1517 Words   |  7 Pagesexample of such c ategories of differences is gender. For that very reason, Cecelia L. Ridgewood (2009) defines gender as a primary cultural frame. It not only shapes our interactions and but also how we organize social institutions, â€Å"Thus, difference and inequality codetermine each other in our shared gender beliefs, and coordination on the basis of them produces social relations of inequality as well as difference† (Ridgeway 2009:149). These shared gender beliefs are socially constructed differencesRead MoreTaking a Closer Look at Gender1311 Words   |  5 PagesFrom the beginning of their lives, individuals are associated with a specific gender, influencing behaviour, opportunities and expectations. The basic inequalities and disparities between men and women are generally seen as the result of the innate, essential differences between the two biological sexes. This theory presumes that each and every member of the female gender is identical, and that the same can be said for males bu t â€Å"not all women are the same, just like all men aren’t the same† (TarrantRead MoreReview Of Richard Schaefer s Consuming Kids 976 Words   |  4 Pagesaspects and values of society and the institutions the individual is living in. My view of the relationship of the individual and his actions with society is similar to the interactionists’ view. People’s behaviors are shaped by other individuals and the wider society. Behavior is conditioned by social institutions and groups because of socialization. The movie â€Å"Consuming Kids† that the class watched depicts how the media has been gaining extreme influence over children. Kids are constantly learningRead MoreDifferences Between Sex And Gender871 Words   |  4 PagesWith sex and gender being such a predominate factor in determining our position in society, it is difficult to hinder ourselves from distinguishing certain characteristics and attributes to be masculine (male) or feminine(f emale). Is is paramount to distinguish the differences between sex and gender. Sex is determined by our hormones and anatomy while gender is the social meanings, behaviors, and expectations attached to a given sex by society (Logg, Lecture Notes, Fall 2015). Generally speakingRead MoreMasculinity, Masculinity And Violence1728 Words   |  7 PagesWithin many gender systems, masculinity is an expression of male gender that can vary based upon culture and society. Many cultures uphold a set of standards and expectations that an individual must maintain in order to be considered masculine. Several of these expectations can often be dangerous, violent, or even abusive. In particular with a focus on the two-sex, two-gender system of Western, patriarchal society, this paper will investigate the correlation between enforced masculinity and violenceRead MoreMasculinity And Social Construction Of Masculinity1461 Words   |  6 Pagesuninterested in sexual conquest, and so forth† (Itu lua-Abumere 42). The presented concept of masculinity presumes that one has to believe in individual difference and personal agency. So, it is based on the concept of individuality that emerged in early-modern Europe, together with the increase of capitalist economic relations and colonial empires. Further, the conception is also inherently relational. Masculinity only exists in coherence with femininity. If a culture does not treat men and women as carriersRead MoreCultural Influences On Masculinity And The Beauty Bias By Deborah Rhode950 Words   |  4 PagesCultural Influences Throughout History on Masculinity and Feminism There has been many influences regarding masculinity and feminity throughout past and recent years in America. Society, along with the media, has created a social spectrum with masculine and feminine on each extreme end. Society has altered the peoples perceptions of what a man and woman should act like, look like as well as be like within the society. Individuals who fall in-between the two extreme ends of the spectrum are belittledRead MoreSocietys Social Construction of Gender1055 Words   |  4 PagesGender is defined as the social arrangements that are built to meet personal traits of being male or female and society has created roles that reflect a gender to act in a certain way in society. Rape culture is seen as normal behavior in society where genders experience violence in social institutions. Society has arranged roles to males and females that have led females to experience violence in society and is seen as a norm rather than a problem, because males need to show their masculinity toRead MoreAn Individual s Own Family Or Close Circle Of Friends962 Words   |  4 Pagesnumber of fans share in the survey. As we have seen in many instances in this project, â€Å"Gender conceptions and role behavior are the products of a broad network of social influences operating both familally and in the many societal systems encountered in everyday life. Peers and family may or may not be conscious of their gender regulatory practices, but they are in some form shape our own concepts of gender. One fan recalls an incident where a friend of his told him to keep silent about likingRead MoreMasculinity Essay989 Words   |  4 PagesMain idea: High school boys practice compulsive heterosexuality to ensure their masculinity and social status. Compulsive heterosexuality is not particularly associated with sexual orientations, but more to do with behaviors, social interactions, and institutional structures. Male students expressed and measured their masculinity by objectifying girls and their bodies, relentless remarks about sexual conquests, desiring girls, and desired by girls. Being in control of girls’ bodies, overpowering

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Human Nature In Society Free Essays

The roots of human nature are sunk deep into our history and experiences. When in our own lives we are to find the basis of our human nature, we must look to our early years, the formative years. Now take for example if we placed a newborn in the wild or in a high-class, well-mannered, wealthy family. We will write a custom essay sample on Human Nature In Society or any similar topic only for you Order Now The human nature of the newborn in the wild will be exactly that, wild and chaotic. While on the other hand the newborn in the well-mannered society will be well mannered and moralistic. Human nature is defined by the values that are taught and the values that society defines, if there are no societal values, human nature is doomed and lessened to that of wolves. Society defines the values and morals for its people to live by, common values. These values affect human nature and affect the way an even slightly self-conscious person behaves. An example of one of these societal values is table manners. Society has defined over hundreds of years of history to eat accompanied by utensils. Society also has set the value and that eating with your bare hands is un-civilized. Another example of a moralistic standard is not to steal. This value is taught by our parents and members of the society, the human society. So human nature has a conscience because of social morals and values. The formation and situation of human nature is dependent on these guidelines. Some peoples human nature may be to steal, maybe to survive but most humans have this as a wrong. Most people have developed a database of right and wrong. Although without society or modern civilization, human nature is reduced to a mind-frame of everyone for themselves and to basically survive. Without civilization Human nature is the same as the instinctual behavior of any human, eat drink, and sleep. Human nature is what separates humans from monkeys. Human nature as a balance of good and evil, humans can use their brain power for good or evil. Some aspects of human nature I encounter are events such as to decide between right and wrong, cause and effect. Human nature forms its basis of teachings at an early age. If you and I are taught good and right early on then our nature will be more knowledgeable and perhaps better. General human nature is different than individual but not by much. Generally, humans are a species that thrive to better their own lives and if possible others lives also. Human Nature also inhibits the qualities of greed, ambition, pride etc. The job of humans is to conform, to an extent, to society and its standards and values. Humans control or do not present these negative or positive aspects. Individually speaking, some people are more greedy than others, some more kind. Even though human nature includes many different aspects, most civilized humans, their nature is to an extent abide by widely accepted moral values. On simple value would be to live and let live, and if possible help. A societal value I am faced with everyday is to be kind and generous or at least to be polite to other fellow human beings. We can think of human nature to follow a kind of moral code such as many religions encourage. Encompassing all, human nature is not the pursuit of humanitarianism but the pursuit of once again, control or present certain qualities of ones characteristics and do this within the guidelines of society or on a larger scale humanity. Human nature is defined by the values that are taught and the values that society defines, if there are no societal values, humans are no different than animals in the wild. Human nature has aspects including love, greed, and ambition which dogs do not. But at the crux, humans do attempt, basically, to survive. Human nature is very complex in the task of approximating individual traits but when speaking of humanity all together its nature is different than animals in that we use our unique characteristics. Humans have wants and desires and also are capable of helping others in need. How to cite Human Nature In Society, Essay examples

Thursday, April 30, 2020

Jerry Seinfeld Essays - Seinfeld, Jerry Seinfeld, Showrunners

Jerry Seinfeld The person I chose to do my independent reading project on Jerry Seinfeld. The reason I did Jerry was I love his show, and I think he is one of the best comedians today and probably ever. Early life It all started on a warm spring day in Brooklyn, New York and I bet no one at that hospital ever thought that little baby Jerry would once become the world's best comedian. Jerry was born on April 24 1954. Jerry was raised in an average home where the dad brought home the money and mom stayed home to keep the neat and tidy (Your regular stereotypical family). But the odd thing was both of his parents were adopted and were raised very poorly. Jerry's father (Kalman) had his own business of sign panting and he did all the painting by himself. High school and college years Jerry went to Massapequa high school. Jerry was often known there for his quick remarks during class and was given the title of class clown in his 2nd year at Massapequa. Between his years in Massapequa and in Queens College he had realized that he had a way of making peoples laugh and he boldly chose it as his career. Jerry graduated in 1976 and had already created a name for him self in the comedy profession. From 1977 to 1981 Jerry was working the clubs and always loved to return to his roots and work at the "Improve" where he was known as a usual there. In 1988 Jerry was at a club when a spokes person from NBC came to talk to Jerry He asked Jerry if he was willing to talk to the NBC executive for a show proposal. He immediately called his old friend Larry David and asked him to help him make up a show for NBC and they did. At first the "Seinfeld Chronicle" was offered a 4 show Guarantee (one of the lowest guarantees ever given for a sitcom). Show later changed its name to "Seinfeld" and was one of the best shows on TV Today Jerry likes collecting exotic cars and he has 25 classic Porsches I hope you enjoyed my project on Jerry Seinfeld.

Saturday, March 21, 2020

Free Essays on Children In The Dust

Children in the Dust To many the concept of holding educational institutions accountable and decreasing funding should their students not meet the standard is brilliant. However, the No Child Left Behind Act, enacted under President George W. Bush, is probably one of the worst pieces of legislation signed by a president ever. Since being enacted educational institutions across the United States have witnessed its effects, and to no surprise the failure rate in public schools has increased. Many argue this is because the federal government has raised the bar, but in reality it is because many veteran teachers are dumbfounded by the logic of politicians. As a result, the teachers have given up, putting less and less effort into ensuring success for a child. The time has come to take a stand against this horrible legislation in order to secure an educational future for the next generation. Since its enactment numerous schools have taken drastic measures to ensure that they continue to receive funding. This effort includes the single most important thing preached to young children never to do and that is to cheat. Teachers now encourage cheating in order to keep their jobs and help the school district receive funding. In Chicago, about 5 percent of the 40,000 classrooms have seen cheating since legislation was stepped up (Grow, 2004). In mid-June a Boston principal was suspended with pay amidst accusations of aiding four students in cheating. In California a May review revealed that more than 200 teachers had been investigated for cheating. It is very clear that in the aftermath of the No Child Left Behind Act teachers and faculty are resorting to desperate measures to keep their funding. To break the legislation down on a simpler level Ken Remsen compares the law to cows in an article in Teacher Librarian via the Burlington Press. To begin, the federal government should mandate testing all cows starting at age 2. Theoretically testi... Free Essays on Children In The Dust Free Essays on Children In The Dust Children in the Dust To many the concept of holding educational institutions accountable and decreasing funding should their students not meet the standard is brilliant. However, the No Child Left Behind Act, enacted under President George W. Bush, is probably one of the worst pieces of legislation signed by a president ever. Since being enacted educational institutions across the United States have witnessed its effects, and to no surprise the failure rate in public schools has increased. Many argue this is because the federal government has raised the bar, but in reality it is because many veteran teachers are dumbfounded by the logic of politicians. As a result, the teachers have given up, putting less and less effort into ensuring success for a child. The time has come to take a stand against this horrible legislation in order to secure an educational future for the next generation. Since its enactment numerous schools have taken drastic measures to ensure that they continue to receive funding. This effort includes the single most important thing preached to young children never to do and that is to cheat. Teachers now encourage cheating in order to keep their jobs and help the school district receive funding. In Chicago, about 5 percent of the 40,000 classrooms have seen cheating since legislation was stepped up (Grow, 2004). In mid-June a Boston principal was suspended with pay amidst accusations of aiding four students in cheating. In California a May review revealed that more than 200 teachers had been investigated for cheating. It is very clear that in the aftermath of the No Child Left Behind Act teachers and faculty are resorting to desperate measures to keep their funding. To break the legislation down on a simpler level Ken Remsen compares the law to cows in an article in Teacher Librarian via the Burlington Press. To begin, the federal government should mandate testing all cows starting at age 2. Theoretically testi...

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

The Story of Sake

The Story of Sake The Story of Sake The Story of Sake By Mark Nichol Sake is one of those nebulous yet specific words that are employed in a limited number of circumstances. This post discusses its origin and uses. Sake (from the Old English term sacu, meaning â€Å"guilt†), which primarily means â€Å"end† or â€Å"purpose,† is used most transparently in phrases beginning â€Å"for the sake of†: â€Å"For the sake of appearances† pertains to something done solely to result in positive perception rather than sincere, practical benefit, while â€Å"for the sake of argument† introduces a hypothetical proposition that involves a contrary viewpoint, as in, â€Å"For the sake of argument, let’s say that what appears to be murder was an accident.† Meanwhile, â€Å"for the sake of it† is an idiomatic phrase meaning â€Å"for no particular reason†; hell, as a meaningless intensifier, often substitutes sake in this usage. Conversely, â€Å"for old time’s sake† pertains to something done as a nod to nostalgia. Also, one can write â€Å"for (one’s) sake,† as in â€Å"For John’s sake, we didn’t tell him about the incriminating letter,† where sake means â€Å"benefit† or â€Å"welfare.† But â€Å"for God’s sake†/â€Å"for Christ’s sake† (the latter sometimes styled â€Å"for chrissake†) is an expression without meaning except to express some heated emotion, such as exasperation. For the sake of euphemism, such a phrase is often bowdlerized to something like â€Å"for Pete’s sake,† inspired perhaps by St. Peter’s name or by the expression â€Å"for pity’s sake† as part of a plea for mercy. Variations include â€Å"for heaven’s sake† and â€Å"for goodness’ sake†; note the apostrophe indicating the genitive state of goodness, signaling that the sake â€Å"belongs† to goodness. (Even in content in which the style is for an s to follow an apostrophe in possessive case, this idiomatic style prevails.) Conversely, the phrase is sometimes rendered more forceful by replacing the middle word with a word equivalent to brandishing one’s middle finger. The compound namesake originally meant, literally, â€Å"one named for the sake of another,† referring to a child named after a parent or another adult to honor that person; now, its meaning extends to â€Å"anyone sharing one’s name.† On that model was keepsake coined; it refers to something originally belonging to, or otherwise associated with a deceased or departed person that is kept by another to honor the first person’s memory. The word forsake (past tense forsook, and forsaken as a past participle and an adjective), meaning â€Å"abandon† or â€Å"renounce,† stems from the Old English intensifying prefix for-, meaning â€Å"completely,† and sake in its original sense of â€Å"accuse† or â€Å"dispute.† The adjective godforsaken- literally, â€Å"abandoned by God†- refers to someplace or something neglected or remote. Sake is also seen in the expression â€Å"Art for art’s sake,† referring to the sentiment that art exists on its own merits and requires no justification. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Bare or Bear With Me?The Four Sounds of the Spelling OUKn- Words in English

Monday, February 17, 2020

Fluvial Geomorphology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Fluvial Geomorphology - Essay Example The basic concepts in fluvial geomorphology are Equilibrium, Regime Theory and Channel Geometry, Geomorphic Thresholds and Scale. Equilibrium state is one in which the input of mass and energy to a specific system equals the outputs from the same system. In fluvial geomorphology it is this equilibrium state that the stream channels tend to achieve Regime theory is grounded on the propensity of a stream system to obtain an equilibrium state under constant environmental conditions. The Regime Theory has a set of empirical equations relating channel shape to discharge, bank resistance and sediment load. It laid the foundation for a large body of work in Fluvial Geomorphology poring on the geometric properties of equilibrium alluvial channels and their adjustments to discharge and sediment transport regimes. Many of the concepts in fluvial geomorphology can be traced to European origins; however, "Classical" American geomorphology as expressed by W.M. Davis has its roots in the Surveys of the Western United States conducted by the U.S. Geological and Geographical Survey following the Civil War. The leading figures in this period of exploration were John Wesley Powell, Gore Karl Gilbert, and Clarence E. Dutton. Others of note during this time frame were Ferdinand V. Hayden, Lt. George N. Wheeler, and Archibald R. Marvine. As the west was being explored and the landforms analyzed, these individuals formulated several key ideas about geomorphology. Clarence Dutton made contributions by creating an awareness of isostatic adjustments and descriptions of landforms. lie also discussed the "Great Denudation," a period of extensive erosion which he felt created the Colorado Plateau. His writings also contained several references to the idea of parallel retreat of slopes. This concept is based upon a belief that hillsides maintain their angle of slope and form as erosion occurs. The first fluvial geomorphic model was the fluvial geographical cycle or the cycle of erosion, developed by William Morris Davis between 1884 and 1899. The cycle was inspired by theories of evolution, and was depicted as a sequence by which a river would cut a valley more and more deeply, but then erosion of side valleys would eventually flatten out the terrain again, now at a lower elevation. The cycle could be started over by uplift of the terrain. The model is today considered too much of a simplification to be especially useful in practice. The Geographical Cycle, as envisioned by Davis, starts with the rapid uplifting of a plain and the beginning of fluvial erosion. Erosion of this initial stage soon produces the second stage, youth. This stage is characterized by low relief and poor drainage with road flat water divides. As the erosion process continues, relief increases until the mature stage is reached. At this time, narrow ridges form water divides and very little flat terrain remains. Additional erosion leads to the old age stage in which relief in slight and low flat plains art dominant. The "almost featureless" plain resulting from the Geographical Cycle was termed a peneplain by Davis. Among suggested examples of peneplains are the Rocky Mountain Peneplain in the Colorado